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There were really three main innovations made during the industrial revolution that led to the rest of the smaller inventions. The three main innovations were textiles, steam power, and iron founding. All of these innovations were made in the second half of the 18th century and led to the economic rise that the industrial revolution was.


Before the invention of the Roller Spinning machine or the spinning jenny, textile manufacture was based on the people doing all of the work with their hands. Work was not getting done as fast as it could which is why inventions needed to get made. Richard Arkwright's water frame, which was an adaptation of Lewis Paul's Roller Spinning machine, helped to get textile manufacturing done much quicker than it had been getting done. James Hargreaves's Spinning Jenny and Samuel Crompton's spinning mule, which was a combination of the Spinning Jenny and the water frame, helped to really increase the put-out of textiles and cotton.

jenny_mule.jpgPicture of the only surviving example of a spinning mule invented by Crompton.

Steam Power

During the beginning stages of the industrial revolution, most power for factories came from either muscle or water, and these sources were not getting the job done for the revolution. Steam power became the primary source of power during the revolution as it was not only able to power the engines, but also trains and furnaces. The first real effective steam engine was developed by James Watt in 1775. After it was invented, the revolution was really able to get going now that things could get done quicker and more efficiently.

qqqwertyuiop.jpgSteam engine developed by Watt and Matthew Boulton

Iron Founding

Before the revolution, charcoal was used in iron smelting instead of coke which helped it to be made quicker and more efficiently. The new processes of making iron were called puddling and potting and stamping. Both of the processes allowed for iron to be made in greater quantity helping all people of the time. Potting and Stamping was invented by brothers Charles and John Wood. Puddling was then later invented by Henry Court in 1783 and patented in 1784. Puddling was a process in which molten iron was stirred with rods and then extracted from the furnace as balls and transported to where they were needed. They could then shape the balls there into what they were needed for.

250px-Puddling_furnace.jpgExample of a puddling furnace


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