How did it used to be?
Before many of the medical advancements procedures were performed in the houses of those who needed to see a doctor or those who needed surgery. Some of the most common treatments of the pre medical advancement period were to make the patient bleed, blister, purge, or to make a patient vomit. Also many surgeries occurred on the kitchen tables in peoples houses while the patient was tied down and give no anesthesia. Surgical instruments were rarely washed in-between surgeries. Majority of the patients would die during surgery of either shock or pain. If a patient lost blood during surgery there was no way of getting it back. Even if you were lucky enough to survive surgery you were at a huge risk for infection because of the unsanitary conditions of the surgery.

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Main Medical Advancements
  • The Stethoscope: this new technology helped fight against the single worst disease of the time, tuberculosis. If you contracted TB in the 19th century you had a 60% survival rate.
  • The Microscope: was perfected which allowed scientists to battle germs at a cellular level. By using the microscope doctors could have conditions be more sanitary. Cholera was discovered in the water and was able to be extracted from the water source and save the lives of thousands.
  • Antiseptic: such antiseptics as chloroform and ether began to be used during surgery and child birth.
  • Pasteurization: was discovered by Louis Pasture. Pasteurization effectively destroyed bacteria in solutions, which allowed for more sanitary conditions.
  • X-Rays: Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays which allowed doctors to study the heart and better diagnose what was wrong with patients.
  • Blood Transfusions: became available. However there was no way to tell if the transfusion would be successful because doctors and scientists still didn’t know about blood types.

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Population growth in the 19th Centaury
The population growth in the 19th Century, among other reasons, was able to happen because of medical advances. People were now living longer and able to be healthier for longer periods of time. In the past people would most likely survive the initial surgery but would die later of infection. With the new medical advancements this was less likely and added to the survival rate of patients.
Reason for Most Disease
In the 19th century the reason for majority of the disease was due to unsanitary and crowed conditions. The conditions were the worst among the poor or working class. Decomposing animal and vegetable substance in over crowded dwellings were a huge contribution to the production of germs and disease. Where there was either no drainage or ventilation, either in housing or factories, disease was found. For a period of time the contamination of London's water supply was a huge problem. For a period of time in London the loss of life from filth and bad ventilation was grater then the loss form dealt or wounds in any war the country had been engaged in. The Public Health Policy was enacted to try to improve the living conditions and the conditions in factory. Ventilation and a clean water supply were the first priorities for this policy.

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Sanitation and Cleanliness
Once the idea of sanitation became accepted in the medicine world mortality rates drastically fell. The new percussions that were taken were to simply to wash hands and clothing worn by medical personnel. Also to ensure that the dressings used to soak up blood in surgery were sterol. To be sterile means to be free of germs or micro organisms. In a specific military ward where a study was performed the mortality rate dropped from 45% to 15% after cleanliness of the hands and clothing of medical personal was insisted.

Results
As a result of all the medical advancements life expect went up and mortality rate with medical procedures went down. Conditions in houses and factories became more sanitary and less disease was spread. Simple health hazards like clean water and cleanliness of the streets were improved. The education for doctors and nurses was better and the germ theory and sanitation of medical personnel was now accepted. After all the medical advancements doctors and scientists had a better understanding, better treatments, and prevention for disease and infection.
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Bibliography:
1. "Medicine (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 17 Sep. 2009. <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.(Data base)

2. "Marie Curie." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 25 Sept. 2009. <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.(Data base)

3. "Edwin Chadwick: report on sanitary conditions (1842)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC- CLIO, 2009. Web. 21 Sept. 2009. <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.(Primary source)

4. Science Technology, and Society: The Impact of Science in the 19th Centaury. Eds. David E. Newton, Neil Schlager, Kelle Sisung. Two Vols. Detroit: UXL, 2001.(Encyclopedia)

5. Elizabeth G. Ellis, Anthony Esler. World History. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2009. PDF File. (Text Book)

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9. Photograph. Part 3: The short story of plastic surgery (1818-1987). Web. 27 Sept. 2009. <http://headandfacedesign.wordpress.com/2008/10/16/part-3-story-of-plastic-surgery/>. (Picture)

10. Shelfmark, John J. Breathing a Vein. Trade Prints and Scraps. The Curator's Choice. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. <http://johnjohnson.wordpress.com/2009/05/06/bitter-pills-and-blood-letting-19th-century-medicine-in-satire/>. (Picture)