Turning Points:
Battle of Britain
The Battle of Britain, that lasted from July 10, 1940 to October 31, 1940, was the only air battle, between the Germans and the British mostly over Britain’s cities and sea, which was completely fought in the air. At this time Winston Churchill was an inspirational leader of Great Britain. The reason for Germany’s attack on Britain was because it could have decided the war, in favor of the Axis Powers. Hitler believed that if he could destroy the Royal Air Force with his Luftwaffe then he would be able to demoralize the British population and destroy their food supply coming from the U.S. and other countries.
This battle turned the whole course of the war because it was the Allied forces first victory on the way to the winning of the World War. Also the British were somewhat caught by surprise without having enough pilots to compete, but the British made a great effort in producing many pilots in such little time that would destroy the Luftwaffe fleet. At first the British were being demoralized when the Germans started to bomb Great Britain with their many bombers called the “Blitz”, but with Churchill’s many inspirational speeches the British won the battle. This caused the Hitler to target Russia because of his unsuccessful trip in the west.

El Alamein
The Allied Powers and Axis Powers had two long fought battles in Northern Africa which would be a big influence in the war. These battles were in the Egyptian city of El Alamein where the first battle ended in a stalemate, but the most important one was the second battle. General Montgomery, leader of the Allied Forces, led a well-briefed army into a huge artillery battle where the Allies bombarded the city with shells until the Axis, led by Marshal Rommel, had to retreat back to Tunisia. The reason why the Allies targeted El Alamein was because it was the gateway to the east because after France had been taken over, this was the other place to help their plan to attack Germany. Also then the Allies would have control over the Suez Canal which was an important for controlling the sea. This battle helped the Allies start to surround the body of Europe and was one of the more important battles strategically for both sides. This allowed the Allies to attack the south part of Europe and gain momentum, while the Axis Powers were losing steam and lost almost three times more men than the opposition.


This event was in Nagasaki, Japan shortly after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. The Americans, Truman who ordered the dropping of the bomb, had been fighting a Pacific Ocean battle between the Japanese after the attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The bombing of Nagasaki killed around 60,000-80,000 civilians. The atomic bomb had never been used in war so this was the first taste of what was to come in the future with weapons and ended with the surrendering of Japan five days after. This changed the balance of the war with the Allied side winning and World War II ended with the bombing.


Primary Sources:

"....the Battle of France is over, I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire."

This primary source represents the British feeling after they had retreated from France and shows why the Battle of Britain was so important in the outcome of the war. This was just one part of one of the inspirational speeches that Churchill gave and would help provide the motivation of effort for their battle for the continuity of the empire.
primary source - Winston Churchill about Battle of Britain

"This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning."
- November 10 1942, Churchill after victory at El Alamein

This primary source shows the importance of the Battle at El Alamein was to the Allies. Churchill describes the war as the “end of the beginning” so he means that the tide has turned and a new stage has occurred in the war, positively for the Allied side. He knows this battle does not end the war, but it is an important part in deciding who wins the war.
primary source - Winston Churchill about Battle at El Alamein

The atomic bomb does not discriminate. Of course, those who were fighting may have to suffer. But the atomic bomb kills everyone from little babies to old people. And it's not an easy death. It's a very cruel and very painful way to die. I think that this cannot be allowed to happen again anywhere in the world. I don't say this just because I'm a Japanese atomic bomb survivor. I feel that people all over the world must speak out.
This primary source by Isao Kita, a Nagasaki atom bomb survivor, described her experience and describes how bad the damages can be. She is not angry about the matter, but sees this as something to learn from and says that an atomic bomb should not be used again. She describes the pain as “not an easy death” that no one should feel.
primary source - Isao Kita about Nagasaki

Works Cited"The Battle of Britain: a brief account." THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN. The Battle of Britain Historical Society, 2006. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://battleofbritain1940.net/bobhsoc/index.html>."Focus on World War II." Discovery Channel International. Discovery Communications Inc. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.yourdiscovery.com/web/world-war-2/ww2-focus/>."Pictures." University of Maine Farmington. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://students.umf.maine.edu/~welchca/pictures.html>.
Robinson, Bruce. "World Wars: World War Two: Summary Outline of Key Events." BBC. 05 Nov. 2009. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ww2_summary_01.shtml>.